Sirajul Hossain

Photographer & Naturalist

Posts Tagged ‘conservation’

The Proposed Wildlife Act – A proposition of legitimate rubberstamping

Posted by sirajul on December 17, 2011

Text and Photographs By:  Sirajul Hossain

[Shorter version of this article was published in the Daily Star:
The proposed Wildlife Act: Anomalies persist
on 17th November, 2011.
Link: http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=210678 ]
 

The government of Bangladesh is formulating a new set of laws for the protection of wildlife in the country named the Wildlife (Protection) Act 2011, which is a follow up of Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order, 1973. A workshop organized to discuss about the improvement of the existing law held in Bangladesh Forest Department on 30th April 2008. Unlike the common practice in Bangladesh, as participants we were delighted seeing the broad participation of various government authorities and interested bodies and friends of the wildlife of Bangladesh. From their numerous inputs, we hoped for a diverse and effective legislation will be forwarded. But ironically we are seeing in the draft that most of the propositions have not been incorporated and all our participations used as eyewash. A monopolized authority has been structured and very vague and undefined committees have been proposed which can be formed by the personal choice of any secretary or minister to rubberstamp a partisan, biased or erroneous decision. It is unclear that this hijack has been done by the ministry or by someone interested in the Forest Department itself with their limited idea on the broadness of the issue.

Forming a suitable and efficient law regarding wildlife is challenging in any country where human pressure is so high. Our perception regarding wildlife is changing so rapidly in recent years which are very rare in any other sector of human planning and legitimacy. A decade ago forest was seen only as government’s source of revenue and the wildlife there was seen as sport hunting games. A century ago forest and its wildlife was seen as a threat and danger to human habitation. Now we see all those as national treasure and protection as a prime concern. These quick turn of ideas creates enormous misunderstanding and confutation which may interrupt traditional livelihood for the people who live close to the natural landscape.

Any law carries a philosophy behind it. The Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order, 1973 is actually some modification of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 of India, which is actually a package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. All are a follow up of the British rules of protecting forests from the colonial age. The philosophy still persists in the proposed act which is going to the parliament for legislation where the sublime agenda of its formulators are still the same as its predecessors to protect everything from the people for the queen.

The proposed wildlife act is an ill motivated package to take in control of the paradigm of the wildlife of Bangladesh by the government in an omnipotent fashion. The proposed act is formulated in such a subtle way, that one man’s decision can control the mechanism and that one man, the chief of the Forest Department has been empirically proven powerless in the practice of governing and decision making freely. That one man always became the puppet of the forest secretary or the minister who can be politically motivated and in most cases with corrupt intention.

A good law must be something that is formulated in such a way that the present and the foreseen practice of manipulation do not pierce it. And at the same time people’s practicing life do not get hampered in a large extent if enacted. The proposed act has been engineered just to do the opposite, if enacted as it is. Any wrongdoing can be Okayed by the mechanism prescribed bypassing the people’s right in critical issues and it can also disrupt many law abiding people’s daily life of those who are living in and around our wilderness.

The goal for the proposed act is to protect wildlife of Bangladesh. But how do we know that what is to be done to protect the wildlife of Bangladesh? Protecting wildlife is a very complex issue which incorporates many law and order, scientific and technical and social and policy issues including economy and finance. The law not only should focus on the protection of the species but as well as protecting the habitat of the species which are often shared with the human habitation all over the country. We have to understand that wildlife and its habitat is such a treasure of a country which is in most cases non- retrievable, that means if we lose them once, it is nearly impossible to get them back again.

The biggest flaw of this proposed act is that it is structured in a pyramid structure where the Chief Wildlife Warden knows everything and decides everything what to do. Of course he may get advice from the Scientific Committee and the Wildlife Advisory Board can suggest him but the committee and the board are fairly scientific and technical management commissions and the members of these committees are not defined in the proposed law. None of these committees suggested any members having such powerful and decision making significance that their position and action can be respected by all to save our wildlife. From the practice of our government and the ministry we know that this is the root of all wrong practices and manipulation. According to the proposed act the Chief wildlife warden is actually the existing Chief Conservator of Forest. Empirically we also know that it is a spineless ‘Yes Sir’ post which actually carries order from the Forest and Environment secretary or the minister. The fear is, the members of those board and committee will also be selected from some ‘yes sir’ experts and ‘friends’ of the ministry and the Forest Department to ratify all they want.

But wildlife laws are for the rights of the wildlife and we have to formulate it in such a way that even if the government one day wish to violate that right – that also become impossible. If we see the structure of the laws of the other countries, we see that ‘what to do’ to protect the wildlife is formulated by a wide range of powerful members from various government and non government organization forming a national body. To avoid the personal preference and the political influence, those committee members are mostly institutional heads. We have to be aware that the government itself can try to do something which can threat wildlife or its habitat for its own interest like mining or military necessity which also should be prevented by the law from the beginning.

Our experience shows, as the proposed pyramid structure, if the Chief Wildlife Warden decides or suggests some action to be taken for the sake of protecting or helping wildlife of the country. If that decision is not pre-ratified by the other involved government departments, or not justified by the non government or individual experts of various discipline, it will be very difficult for him to peruse and execute that error free into reality. As an example, if we see the wildlife act of India [The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, with The Amendment, 2002, http://westbengalforest.gov.in/pdf/the_wildlife_p_act_1972.pdf%5D where the top decision maker of ‘what to do’ to protect wildlife is actually comes from the suggestion and planning from a high power board called “National Board for Wildlife” headed by the Prime Minister as chairperson. The other members are; The Minister, Forests and Wildlife; three members of Parliament; Member Planning Commission; Five persons to represent NGOs; Ten persons to be nominated by the Government from amongst eminent conservationists, ecologists and environmentalists; Secretary, Forests and Wildlife; Chief of the army staff; Secretary of Defense; Secretary of Information and Broadcasting; Secretary, Finance; Secretary, Tribal Welfare; Chief of The Department of Forest; Chief of Department of Tourism;  Director-General, Forestry Research; Director, Wildlife Institute of India; Director, Zoological Survey of India; Director, Botanical Survey of India;  Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute; Member-Secretary, Central Zoo Authority; Director, National Institute of Oceanography, and so on. All the members are defined in the order and this body should meet twice a year and formulate the policy and harmonize it with other issues and will submit written recommendation for the necessary task.

The above wide and powerful body suggests and approves the necessary best possible actions for the protection and wellbeing of the wildlife to the government and the Chief wildlife Warden is to execute the approved tasks. It is noticeable that most of the above board members cannot be selected by anybody or any department on personal choice, instead most are institutional heads which is a process to nullify personal influence and political manipulation. If the advice and suggestions and orders do not come from a wide bodied national board including the participation of the Prime minister and the finance department, no advice from the sole proposition from wildlife department neither will be seriously heard nor will get any finance to execute.

The proposed Wildlife Act is seriously flawed in this respect as the provision is there also to form committees by gazette notification of which one is a Scientific Committee and another is Wildlife Advisory board. But the task for both the committee is vaguely defined and mostly its task will be to advise and approve the proposal and reports prepared by the Chief Wildlife Warden. The biggest flaw and weakness is that the members of these committees are not defined. That means, the relevant government authority may select members who are in favor of them, and very likely favoring the political influence of the ruling party. Practically the committees will be the rubberstamp of the Chief Wildlife Warden or the minister himself. For the sake of wildlife, to avoid all the malpractice, all these committees should be predefined in the law and to be formed from the head of the institutions. This institutionalization will reduce the chance of politicizing the system.

In most of our wildlife habitats, people live in and around and share the place with wildlife. From hundreds of years people from the small ethnic groups are living in and around the national parks and protected areas in Bangladesh. In the proposed act new rules has been suggested for the protected areas for the forest harvesting, trespassing or in many cases the punishment has been increased for the violators. The laws did not define how it will deal with the people living inside the national parks and it totally ignored the issue of the small ethnic groups who are living in and around the protected areas. This deliberate omitting of the issue will create serious clash with the daily life and the law and the wildlife management either will be troublesome for a legitimate government official. Or it will strengthen the evil hand of an ill-motivated one to threaten the members of the small ethnic groups living there. So, how the act will deal with the small ethnic groups and other human settlers who are living in and close to the protected areas should be clearly defined.

The proposed act also legitimizes the co-management practice in the protected areas. Already we have experiences some pilot projects of co-management in some protected areas of Bangladesh. Until the co-management areas were under close and effective monitoring of the project, in average it was showing some good impact. But as well as the close monitoring of the project stopped, or the control and association from the central project office loosened, immediately the co-management mechanism has been politicized by the local influential body or the local MP. This will seriously hamper the government’s own activity of forest management as well as the local goons will get a legitimate hold to the forest and the wildlife there. To avoid this politicizing malpractice, a carefully thought, institutionalized (members selected from the local institution heads) co-management structure should be pre-defined in the law.

It is very fortunate that we are living in a very precious biodiversity hotspot of the planet. After all our mismanagement and malpractice, still our Sundarban is getting the pride of the biggest single natural tiger population in the world. Our Lawachara National Park is one of the finest forests with wide variety of biodiversity still thriving. If all these we can save and develop, we can get much of our golden heritage of wildlife back. To make conservation effective and to control the destruction of the wildlife and its habitat, I strongly suggest to revise the proposed act with a stronger conservation philosophy in the background and to make laws for the sake of true wellbeing of the wildlife of Bangladesh. I also strongly suggest forming a National Board of Wildlife to make the measures wise and effective.

Sirajul Hossain

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Death of Two Tigers: The Other Agendas?

Posted by sirajul on June 7, 2008

Sirajul Hossain

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(Shorter version of this article was published on the The Daily Star on 07th June’08 with the title: On Death and Survival of Tigers)

 

The Daily Star published my article about the death of the tigers during research in Sundarban on the 22nd February 2008 (The Death of Two Tigers: Immature science in immature hands). Immediately this article was re-published or linked on many wildlife, conservation and veterinary related websites and forums on the net. As a follow-up there have been many discussions among experts like veterinary professionals and wildlife scientists worldwide regarding the safety and methods of collaring of wild tigers. In response to my article Adam Barlow of STP wrote a long article and Indian tiger expert Dr. Ullas Karanth wrote a letter to The Daily Star. Wildlife researcher Dr. Raghu Chundawat commented in a BBC interview and the producer of the BBC film the “Ganges” Dan Rees wrote letters to the editor of The Daily Star. I thank all for their interest and comments and I will try to discuss about the responses which are relevant to many of my comments and quotes.

 

Somehow the expert community who are closely connected to Mr. Adam got an impression that in Bangladesh there is ‘media hysteria’ against radio collaring, that some people do not understand the necessity of research and standing against collaring of tigers. Also there is an effort to give this discussion a political color that some people are against any foreign involvement in Bangladesh and they are doing propaganda against foreign scientists and their work. As a response I want to say, which was also reflected in my previous article, that I am not against research and not against collaring of tigers if it really helps conservation and done with a safe and up-to date procedure and transparency. I also want to say that, Bangladesh is a backward country in science and technology and without the assistance of the foreign expertise and support our conservation cannot succeed. But those supports should come with a complete plan which works ensuring that nobody can use it for their personal or group interest other then the main agenda. We all should acknowledge that we are discussing here standing over two dead bodies of tiger who were the subject of invasive research. Until there is a proper investigation to find the cause of the deaths, any peer leaning will not help the research or conservation.

 

Re-Darting The Collared Tiger, where the Tranquilizer Dart at Rear Right Leg and The Collar on The Neck, Both Is visible. – Screen Shot from the BBC Ganges

 

The initial questions after the death of both the tigers were very simple, if the drug had any effect on their death or if the drug was administered properly and in right dose. The second thing was to find the reasons of apparently abnormal behavior of the tigers from collaring to their death and the reason of re-darting the second tiger when she was already very weak due to starvation. But Mr. Adam not answering these basic questions is trying to prove from many angles that why radio collaring is important, why conservation is so necessary and how collaring is so successful in other countries etc.

 

Observing the events and by communicating with many vets and experts now it can be understood that, in developed countries like USA, Russia etc. where many tigers live in the wild or in captivity, strong regulations are followed while applying drugs to animal. They only allow certified vets to execute the process and they preserve all the necessary records. Investigations are mandatory by independent authorities in case of any incident like death or severe injury. Experts there use Ketamine/Xylazine protocol to immobilize tiger as a first choice and Telazol (or Zoletil, Tiletamine/Zolazepam) is not recommended except in an emergency to save life.

 

But a small group of scientists mostly from India is still using the drugs like Telazol which is not methodically tested for Bengal tigers and even is not recommended for tigers by the manufacturer itself. A spokesman for Fort Dodge, the company which makes Telazol, said “It had not performed any safety studies on its use on tigers, and does not market or recommend Telazol for this (tiger immobilization) purpose.” (BBC News: Tiger collaring project suspended, bbc.co.uk). In the subcontinent in many cases like tiger collaring no proper procedure is being followed, not adequate record is maintained and no independent investigation follows after an incident like tiger death or missing. That might help continuing an unsafe procedure for long. All of Mr. Adams tigers die of old age soon after collaring, most of Mr. Raghu Chundawat’s tigers goes missing (Four of six collared tigers missing, Down to Earth, Vol. 13, No 22, April 05, 2005).

 

The project’s primary objective was collaring normal tigers to find their territory and behavior to build conservation strategy management but now Mr. Adam is trying to sell the importance of the project by emphasizing the necessity of working with problem tigers. These two contradicts each other. The data collected by collaring the problem tigers will not satisfy the primary research objective. It is also very strange that he is working with problem tigers at the eastern coastal forests when 99% of the tiger human conflict occurs or people die in the western Sundarban area.

 

Mr. Adam also commented in his article that many of the references I cited in my article do not have ‘actual data’ showing the adverse effects of Telazol. It is true that there is not enough actual data because there was no actual research done about the application of this drug on wild tigers. This also means that there is no actual data ensuring the safety of the drug too. Mr. Adam argued with the help of Dr Terry J. Kreeger that both the tiger did not die by the effect of the drug just because they didn’t die immediately after immobilization. Their prediction may be true for zoo and captive tigers. But anybody who has the basic knowledge about wild animal knows wild tigers are predators and has territorial conflict with other animals.  The physical and psychological effects for the drug can make them weak and may make them unable to hunt efficiently. They eventually can die of hunger and weakness or may be killed by other tigers or poachers easily when she becomes weak or looses her senses. The BBC footage shows such a thin and week tiger after immobilized by Telazol which can prove this argument. Dr. Kreeger also didn’t find any scientific data that proves that Telazol can have neurological effects like CNS signs in tiger. The answer is the same, field researchers reported from many places of this event but nobody did systematic research that the reference data can be available. Normally it is the drug manufacturer’s responsibility to do such research, but in case of Telazol, the manufacturer says they produce this drug for domestic cats and dogs only and not for tigers (BBC News above).           

 

I also quoted from some references which commented about the adverse effects of Telazol and the post anesthesia prolonged CNS signs to tigers. Mr. Adam through Dr. Kreeger claimed that the author’s references were old, do not have any research data behind it and Telazol had many formulation changes. This statement is untrue. In the drug industry, if any drug goes through any formulation changes, it cannot be sold under the same trade name. A very new and well acclaimed recent publication on anesthesia of wild animal says “Anecdotally, tigers do not appear to recover well after Telazol; therefore, its use is generally contraindicated” – (Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia, West et al; First edition, October 2007, pp.12). Another important book writes, “There is evidence of behavioral problems associated with the use of Telazol in tigers” – (Chemical Immobilization of wild and Exotic Animals, Nielson, L, 1999 Ed. pp. 246). Mr. Adam’s claim of formula changes of Telazol does not coincide with these very up-to-date references and most of Mr. Adam’s references supporting Telazol are very old from 70’s and 80’s.

 

Mr. Adam many times refers to the other collaring projects all over the world. Many times he cites about the success of the project with Siberian tigers in Russia but he never tells that those tigers were tranquilized mostly by using Ketamine/Xylazine protocol. Also he comments about my points of the danger of snare and bait for wild tigers. He again misunderstood me because my reason to bring up these topics to show that we put enough other risk on wild animals if we even uses a safe drug. So if this whole process of collaring does not give something very important to conservation, it puts unnecessary risk to this the already near extinct animal.

 

Mr. Adam portrayed the success story of collaring in Nepal but in this month (May’08 ) a Nepal national daily reports a tiger death in the Bardiya National Park (RBNP) after 12 days of radio collaring. The tiger found dead empty stomach and there were evidence of a fight with another tiger. The report claims with its ‘reliable source’ in the park that the tiger was not behaving normally after it was darted and was starving for days. The report also says, about two years ago another tigress were darted and she completely lost her senses after darting and died eating poisoned food. Several cubs of that tigress also died along with her. There were no third party investigation followed but independent sources and locals claim that almost all of Nepal’s collared tigers behaved abnormally after darting and there are direct or indirect connection to most of their deaths to darting and collaring –(Research, not poaching, killing tigers in Bardiya, The Rising Nepal, 3rd May’08).

 

Tiger sales! Any wildlife documentary which contains some tiger footage from the wild in it is a hotcake in the international media market. Filming in the forests with wild tigers is very expensive and difficult job. It needs expertise on the species and needs long time to get good tiger footage. Only they can shoot tiger from close by baiting which needs special permission from the government and incurs additional arrangement and cost. It is the easiest making films with collared tigers which doesn’t need many of the hassles and costs above. Openly there are direct beneficiaries of the project inside the country and abroad. Big film companies support and motivate collaring of tiger for their own benefit. The locals who provide support to the filmmakers get financially benefited if the process goes on. The acquired data from the collared tiger is very ‘valuable’ for publishing articles and books. Other agendas may become more lucrative and motivating then conservation itself. For these other agendas any of the wild tiger’s life should not be put on risk.

 

 

The Facial Marks Shows the Tiger Which was Collared (Night Shot) and the Tiger Which Was Claimed in the Film As Problem Tiger (Day Shot) was The Same Tiiger – Screen Shot from the BBC Ganges

 

There can be two explanations why Mr. Adam decided to re-dart a near dead collard tiger. The first tigress collared was found dead having the collar on which made a big media reaction. One explanation is, to avoid that media reaction they had decided to re-dart the tigress to remove the collar to declare the tiger missing in a suitable time. The other explanation is to capture a live darting sequence for the BBC film team. The normal darting procedure is difficult for filming. First they put snares and tie live baits (usually cows) in the potential roaming areas of the tiger. They do not know when or where the tiger will be caught. When the tiger get caught in the snare after a week or month, they come and dart the animal. This is a violent event to show on TV because the wild tiger fights viciously with the snare. Also in many countries it is prohibited to show contents filmed with the assistance of live bait. Avoiding all these, the ‘Ganges’ crews got great advantage from the project having the darting sequence filmed. In exchange they made the story of the tigers in the film as such that the film became a good alibi showing that the tigress was not eating and behaving ‘abnormal’ before darting and was a threat to the people in the village. But all those shots were taken of the collared tiger carefully obscuring the collar when actually her weakness was due to starvation and abnormal behaviors post collaring. In this way the project hiding the truth and twisting the facts tried to fool the tiger enthusiasts all over the world by the documentary. Adam is even saying in front of the camera “Her skins fairly… little bit… pretty slack, she is an old animal, I am not going to collar her”, when he just removed the collar from her moments ago by re-darting (BBC DVD, Ganges, Behind the Scenes, 0:22:56).  This was a win-win situation for the project and for the film team, but it was virtually killing an endangered animal in the wild to hide truth or to fulfill the other agendas of the researcher.

 

After the death of his two collared tigers Mr. Adam was rousing about the necessity of collaring for conservation of tigers in Bangladesh everywhere. After the suspension of the collaring permission he is now raising a new issue of dealing ‘problem tigers’ by collaring. Dr. Ullas Karanth and Dr. Raghu Chundawat, two Indian wildlife experts openly supported his causes. Mr. Adam claims that Dr. Karanth had no problem doing research in Nagorhole but Dr. Raghu Chundawat writes, “Tiger project in Nagarhole by Ullas Karanth has had to face tremendous problems in conducting research; more recently, several cases in courts have been slapped on him” (Tiger Task Force Report, MoEF, India, May 2005). Mr. Karanth argues in his letter to the Daily Star, “Unless mortalities actually occur during sedation, death of a collared tiger weeks or days later cannot be attributed to the research work.” He also says “The radio-collar does not bestow immortality on its wearer.” But application of inappropriate drug or improper application of a safe drug can make a wild tiger unhealthy. That can reduce the tigers hunting efficiency and can make her week and eventually the tiger may die weeks or months later. Shall we consider it a normal death?

 

Mr. Chundawat started his radio collaring project in Panna tiger Reserve in India around 1995. At that time Panna considered one of the best tiger reserve in India and the whole world supported Mr. Chundawat’s project. BBC made films on his work there (Tigers of the Emerald Forest) and many books and articles were published from the experience of his field research. For nine years he made Panna his home and collared at least eleven tigers. Even in an article in BBC Wildlife magazine (December 2003 issue) he writes “Against the backdrop of declining tiger populations, the restoration of tigers to their optimal population in Panna has been a real achievement. Few other examples of this exist in tiger conservation.” But soon after that he suddenly declares four of the six tigers, on which his team had put radio collars, were missing. He says “at least 13 tigers with radio devices attached to collars in the park and being monitored by his team had gone missing recently” (News, BBC.co.uk, 5th May, 2005). He claimed that all of them were killed by poachers. The authority, which gave permission of doing invasive research with Panna tigers became very upset with him and cancelled his research permission and even prohibited him to enter the park. Mr. Chundawat says about his own project “Tiger research project in Panna, Madhya Pradesh: After the death of radio-collared tigers due to poaching, death of prey species in snares and complaints made to chief wildlife warden regarding the lax protection measures and destructive management practices, the forest department started harassing the researcher and curtailing research activities in this case. After a petition was filed regarding the flawed management practices based on the information gathered by the researcher and following his whistle-blowing on the deteriorating status of tigers in Panna, the management began a harassment campaign against the researcher. It included acts like canceling research permission, refusing to renew the permission to monitor the radio-collared tigers, retrospective charges for using elephants as transport and legal notices to recover the revenue through forfeiting the researcher’s property and asking him to vacate his field camp, seizing the research vehicle and equipment etc.” (Tiger Task Force Report, MoEF, India, May 2005). Now it seems that Panna, which was famous as the reserve of the Emerald Tigers possibly going to be the next Sariska. In Sariska suddenly they found in one nice morning that there is no tiger at all.

 

Indian Express writes in March 2005, “In fact, a visit to the Emerald Forest there clearly shows that the Panna Tiger Reserve could be going the Sariska and Ranthambhore way. A well-known field researcher (Dr. Raghu Chundawat) has submitted a report this week that some 30 tigers may have died or gone missing in the Panna reserve over the past two-and-a-half years. And, the Central Empowered Committee, set up by the Supreme Court, warned last month that unless quick action was taken ‘‘the tiger may never recover here.’’

 

Rajesh Gopal IGF & director, Project Tiger New Delhi writes “The researcher (R. Chundawat), like many others who have done breast-beating in the media over tigers, also appears to have a hidden agenda. It is learnt he has set up an NGO near the tiger reserve recently to further his cause, which perhaps warrants an anti-system posture to gain credibility. Alas, these are the woes of wildlife conservation today!” (Indian Express 11th March’ 05)

 

Could these nine years of research and so much radio collaring data do anything to save the tigers in Panna? The wildlife department of India does not believe in Dr. Chundawat’s poaching claims that much. Xinhua reports about a tiger death in Panna,Doctors and park officials say the death was not due to poaching as the tiger’s body was ‘intact’ – no parts had been pulled out, but the conservationists say otherwise” – (People’s Daily, China, May 07, 2006). All agree that poaching is happening in India quite a lot but it is not easy poaching a normal healthy tiger in the wild underhanded. Researcher’s use live baits, put multiple snares and work day and night and wait weeks and months for a tiger to be trapped. Even if we accept Dr. Chundawat’s claim about poaching, why in Panna poaching rate went so high for a very short time? Were the drugs used made the tigers unable to hunt which weakened them and eventually were easily killed by the poachers? Or the drugs made them abnormal in their behavior and they lost the fear of human and went close to human habitations to have easy food that made their life vulnerable? Or poachers used simple radio receivers to track his collared tigers to find them? Who is going to answer those questions in a country in South Asia, where a neutral and independent investigation never follows through.

 

George Schaller, the world’s preeminent field biologist, and known as one of the greatest naturalist of the 20th century, sums up the issue beautifully by name. “Field biologists, such as Karanth and Chundawat, can use technology in the form of satellite radio-collars, camera-traps, DNA analysis of scats and other techniques to determine population size, movement patterns, and other aspects. That provides extremely valuable information. Such knowledge is essential for conservation but it is not conservation. Conservation, in the final analysis, is culture, economics and politics.” (Dataquest, October 10, 2007). Seems Mr. Adam is also walking through the same way that Dr. Karanth and Dr. Chundawat walked before in India. While facing questions and controversy, not seeing it as a positive criticism and correcting errors with honesty, rather rousing local people for grouping, making another tiger film or making more ‘friends of the project’ will initiate an unhealthy political dimension to the still immature tiger conservation in Bangladesh. Bangladesh forest department should motivate and integrate the whole nation to participate in the difficult task like tiger conservation in Sundarban, rather then depending on a small group of ‘experts’ who want to be famous even by cuddling dead tigers.

 

An independent multi government enquiry should succeed having the best veterinary and wildlife experts from around the world to find out what actually happened to all the collared tigers in this subcontinent. They should investigate about the history of their physical and mental conditions after darting. They also should try to find the cause of deaths of all collared tigers and should make a safe procedure and recommendations for future collaring practices for the elegant Bengal tigers. Stopping research is not an option and unmonitored field research and research for ‘other agendas’ without true and complete conservation plan also will not help surviving the rest about 2000 tigers in the subcontinent.

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Death of Two Tigers: Immature Science in Immature Hands?

Posted by sirajul on February 22, 2008

Sirajul Hossain*

A leading daily newspaper published news about the death of two Bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) in Sunderban mangrove during research by anesthesia and radio-collaring (Prothom Alo, January 31, 2008). According to the news the first tigress was captured around end April 2005 and died six months later having the collar on. The second tigress captured in March 2006 and second time tranquilized in December 2006 to remove the collar. The BBC film crew captured this second tranquilizing sequence of near dead tigress and added it to the film “Ganges” and now showing worldwide the last scenes of that pathetic tigress. The tigress assumed dead immediately afterwards.

sundarban12.jpg

Sundarban – Home for The Bengal Tigers

The research project was initiated about four years back by Bangladesh Forest Department. James. L. D. Smith, Professor, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology of The University of Minnesota appointed as a consultant and Adam Barlow, a Ph.D. candidate in the Conservation Biology Program is engaged in the field research. The project effectively started its field activities in February 2005. They claimed that the idea for creating such a project was first developed during a field survey in 2001 conducted by Md. Osman Gani, Ishtiaq U. Ahmad, James L. D. Smith and K. Ullas Karanth1.

Initially the project was called “Tiger Study Project in The Sunderbans2” but later the project was addressed as “Sundarban Tiger Project1” or STP. Initially the main goals of the project were: A. To find out the home range of tiger. B. Tiger density and pray abundance in relation to forest cover. C. Tiger-human interaction. D. Change of behavior in response to tidal, diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. E. Behavior change with cubs and last kill etc. The initial objective of the project was purely scientific but after the death of the first tiger and related public reaction, the project changed its face and added some monster goals like A. Conservation capacity building. B. Creating public awareness etc.  The initial goal, Research became a part of the program. But even after inflating the project paradigm in such a vast forest like Sundarban, the project working manpower remained the same, the PhD student Adam Barlow, one forest guard, one speedboat driver and three helpers1 who had no prior experience and no considerable education. The Save the Tiger Fund and the United States Fish and Wildlife service funded the initial phase of research as the project website claimed.

collar.jpg                                                                                            The Second Tiger With Radio Collar – Photo: Screen Shot from BBC- Ganges  

On one of my many trip to Sundarban sometime in 2005 I met Adam Barlow. I came to know about his project and was delighted to know that something good is going to happen for the tigers in Bangladesh. I also found out that he is going to radio-collar eight to nine tigers in Sundarban, among them six are female and two or three male2. On my question of the method of radio collaring, I got to know that he is going to bait cows and trap them using snare and then will tranquilize by using Telazol, a general purpose anesthetic used for animal anesthesia. As a wildlife photographer and as a naturalist we always gather information on the species and try to remain informed. It struck in my mind that somewhere I read that tranquilizing wild tiger can be fatal to the animal and that’s why it is stopped in many countries and is not permitted any more. But I couldn’t recall where I got that information from. I expressed my concern to Adam and told him to check this matter from the experts.

After I came from the forest I sent a mail quarrying the effect of anesthesia of wild tiger by Telazol to one of my American friend who is working in Roche, a leading pharmaceutical company in USA. He forwarded the quarry to one of his veterinary colleague and she wrote:

“Telazol (tiletamine/zolazepam) is used in a number of wild cat species, but specifically should not be used in tigers3,4,5.  Experience has shown that tigers originally exhibit normal anesthesia during the procedure, but have neurologic signs 2-4 days later which include seizures, ataxia, and paresis4.  Two theories behind this involve recycling of the tiletamine component to an active metabolite or enterohepatic recycling via bile.  The white variant of tiger has been documented to seem especially susceptible to this effect.  Some practitioners have found that this adverse effect of Telazol is found only in Siberian tiger populations; however, the number of mixed tigers precludes reliable identification of subspecies outside the carefully documented lineage of zoo tigers.” 

I also found many other references soon about the adverse effect and reports of cause of death of tiger related to application of Telazol to wild tigers. I came in contact with Simba Wiltz, who is a Handler of big cats in Thunderhawk Big Cat Rescue, Florida. Simba got his Doctor of Pharmacy from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2004. He personally wrote me:

“It has been shown that Telazol recycles in the system of cheetahs and it is suspected that it may do the same for tigers–in fact, Tiletamine/Zolazepam should NOT be used in tigers for that very reason. You should consult the on-staff veterinarian regarding other agents available, and make sure that someone experience veterinarian is available to perform the procedure who knows emergency responses.  Still, standard of care at least in US facilities does not include Telazol for chemical control of tigers. He also noted Ketamine is notorious for causing seizures in big cats which can be lethal, proper protocol should be maintained” 

An article published in Australian Veterinary magazine, named Tiger anesthesia, by L Vogelnest, Veterinary and Quarantine Centre, Taronga Zoo, Mosman, New South Wales says:

“The use of Zoletil (same as Telazol, Tiletamine/Zolazepam) is contraindicated in tigers: recoveries are prolonged (hours to days), various neurological signs have been encountered, and there have been reports of deaths during and after its use in tigers6.”

Aust Vet J Vol 77, No 6, June 1999.  

Husbandry manual for small felids describes:

“Another commonly used drug for felid anesthesia is Telazol® (Animal Health Group, A.H. Robins Co.), (also marketed as Zoletil®, READING Laboratories), a 1:1 combination of Tiletamine HCl and Zolazepam HCl. An advantage of Telazol is its availability as a dry powder that can be concentrated from 100 to 500 mg/ml permitting small drug delivery volumes. ….  The disadvantages are occasional minor CNS signs, usually in the form of mild tremors. A re-sedation 3 to 4 days following Telazol anesthesia has been reported in some species of large felids (tiger, lion, cheetah). The cheetahs experiencing this problem originally had prolonged anesthetic episodes that required several Telazol supplements. Similar observations have been reported in some tigers. These animals usually show mild sedation with stumbling and may require supportive treatment for 12 to 24 hours before returning to normal. The use of Telazol in tigers has been replaced with Ketamine and Xylazine due to this re-sedation. If supplementation of the Telazol is required, it is advisable to supplement with ketamine (instead of Telazol) at a dose of 2-4 mg/kg intramuscularly or 0.5-2 mg/kg intravenously7.”

Nielsen L. also suggested in his book “Chemical immobilization of wild exotic animals” that Telazol should not be used for tigers and can cause death8.

walk.jpg                                                                                          Near Death tiger after 2nd time Tranquilizing – Photo: Screen Shot from BBC- Ganges  

Instead of Telazol, some experts are suggesting Ketamine and Xylazine. But as a newer anesthetic there are not much field data available. Also the protocol is more complicated for Ketamine then Telazol. Telazol is more popular to the field researchers because it has a simpler protocol and it is found in powder form which is easy to carry and preserve.

Cat metabolism and pathology is complex and not very well known yet to science. Most of the research regarding chemical immobilization is done by the veterinary and anesthesia specialists. In most cases the animal tested remains in captivity or in the zoo. For wild animal the research is very difficult and often not permitted in most countries. Which is specially true for endangered and rare species. Many of these drugs are used for emergency situations for wild animal where there is a life threat for the animal or for human. Many local people reported and In the BBC film “Ganges” it was commented that both the tiger showed abnormal behavior and there are reports of attacking people. In Eastern Sundarbn, places like Katka and Chaprakhali, where many tourists walk on the meadow and the beach or fishermen work day and night, there were never reports of aggressive behavior of tigers. Even the first tiger jumped over Dr. Tapan Kumar Dey, DFO and his team when they were trying to photograph the first tiger after collaring. They jumped on the nearby pond to save themselves in Kochikhali.

Tranquilizers work on the central nervous system of the animal. There are reports that Telazol may cause long term psychological effects to tiger. The tranquilized tiger may feel dizzy, sedated sometimes and can feel irritated or anxious some other time. Possibility of hallucination also claimed.         

with-boar.jpg                                                                                         Wild Boar is no more afraid of the dying Tiger – Photo: Screen Shot from BBC- Ganges  

Some tigers, especially Siberian tigers have shown greatly prolonged recovery and recycling of Telazol that has caused CNS signs several days after immobilization. These signs may come and go for days or weeks post-immobilization 9.”

 – Christopher J. Katz D.V.M, Anesthesia of Exotic Cats 

In 1992 during the research on Amur (or Siberian) tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Researchers caught some tigers using Aldrich foot snares, the snared foot was swollen in all cases. They anesthetized tigers with a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride instead of telazol10.

Pharmacokinetics is the process by which we know how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body. Any drug before application on any animal pharmacokinetic observation should be done. Little pharmacokinetic information is available for Telazol (Tiletamine HCl / Zolazepam HCl)11.  

Sundarban is a unique place and also the only great ecosystem in the world where Bengal tigers live in saline water system. Life of a wild tiger is extremely challenging and very much depends on the physical and psychological integrity of the animal. For zoo or captive tigers physical wellbeing is enough for her survival. But for a wild animal her physical and psychological performance together only can ensure her survival. There has not been any pharmacological research to find how the above chemicals will affect specially the Sundarban tiger that drinks salt water and eat the intestine of the kill full of mangrove vegetation. Before this research is done and proven safe, there should be no other application of those drugs on healthy tigers in the wild.

Dr. Ullas Karanth started tiger research in Nagorhole reserve forest in India using chemical immobilization and radio collaring. After the death of several tigers the Chief Wildlife Warden of India (same as our CCF) cancelled his permission for that fatal research. From then tranquilizing healthy wild tiger is not permitted in India anymore. Exception is only in case of relocation if any tiger proven to be a man-eater. Dr. Karanth and many of his foreign partners are very eager to tranquilize wild tigers and may be wants to finish their incomplete research which failed in India. The tiger radio collaring project in Bangladesh also motivated by the same group of experts who are very keen to do the same practice somewhere else where getting the research permission is easier. In an interview with the Indian famous technology magazine “Dataquest” Karanth says in June 2007:

 “The biggest issue in use of technology, say radio telemetry or chemical immobilization, is the problems of getting research permissions 12.”

The present Radio-collaring methodology of wild tigers incorporates many issues which can be harmful or lethal to the individual tiger, or to the whole or part of the population. It can even increase human-tiger conflict if it is not practiced with a lot of care, maturity and responsibility. Researchers are using live cow as bait, which can infect wild species with new disease. Amur tiger researchers say they trapped 19 tigers and all of them had swollen legs where the snare was caught10. Traps and snares can injure tiger and that could be enough for the end of their life. Applying anesthesia without proper understanding of the pharmacokinetics of the specific population can cause fatality or abnormal behavior to the tigers and which eventually can increase human tiger conflict.

We all are aware that getting adverse effect information about wild animal research on any drug or procedure is very difficult. Expert community in wildlife research is small and everybody knows each other. Only a few organizations are funding and nobody wants to say negative words towards friends and colleagues. Almost everywhere the wild animals are government’s property and protected by the state law. If any wrong things happen somewhere, the news does not go very far, officials need to save themselves too. This creates misconceptions for the others about choosing the proper method if it does not fall in his own discipline of knowledge. Often experts remain silent about a wrong idea fearing that criticism can make them isolated in the community.

Chemical immobilization techniques and its protocols for wild animals are still immature science. Many species of Asia and those which are special like saline water tigers can not be experimented without proper knowledge of the drug and its interaction. For any chemical immobilization a licensed veterinary doctor with specific knowledge on the species and the pharmacology should be present at the field and should be officially responsible for the status of the animal.    

There are some experts who are very much interested in gizmo science. They think the use of GPS and radio telemetry or any other high-tech gadget will solve every problem. Thick canopy like sundarban may also impair GPS function and can put a lot of void in data. If the tiger shows prolonged CNS signs and abnormal behavior with the effect of the drug, the acquired data by the collar will be vitiated. Any planning or strategy implemented based on those erroneous data can cause harm to the whole population. The same research can be done with camera trapping (like Trail Master). Camera trapping is allowed everywhere and used worldwide without any harmful effect on the species for similar research.    

References: 

1          STP Website, http://www.sundarbanstigerproject.info/ 

2          Project Flyer published by Forest Department and MoEF

3          Wack, R. Felidae. Fowler ME, Miller ER eds. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 5th ed.

            WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 2003.

4          Curro, TG. Large Cat Anesthesia. http://www.vin.com. Accessed March 15, 2004.

5          Miller M, Weber M, Neiffer D, et al. Anesthetic induction of captive tigers (panthera

            tigris) using a medetomidine-ketamine combination. J Zoo Wildl Med. 34(4):307-8, 2003.

 6          Tiger anesthesia, by L Vogelnest, Aust Vet J Vol 77, No 6, June 1999. 

7          Mitchell Bush et. al, Husbandry manual for small felids, Ch.3, by, National Zoological Park Conservation & Research Center, Published by Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, FL

8          Nielsen L., Chemical immobilization of wild exotic animals. Iowa State University

            Press, Ames, 1999.

9          Christopher J. Katz D.V.M, Anesthesia of Exotic Cats,

            http://www.vetandwild.com/Cats.html

10        John M. Goodrich, et. al.Capture and Chemical Anesthesia of Amur (Siberian)

            Tigers, Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 2

11        Donald C. Plumb, Pharm D, Veterinary Drug Handbook, , Blackwell Publishing,

            pp.760 

12        The Last Roar, Dataquest, India, Wednesday, June 27, 2007,   

*Published in The Daily Star, Thursday, February 22, 2008

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